As a result of reading and studying this chapter students will be able to:

  • Identify and explain the three elements of fluency instruction
  • Define independent silent reading and identify ways in which a teacher can provide opportunities for its use (inside and outside of the classroom)
  • Explain the limitations of using independent silent reading for fluency instruction for beginning or struggling readers
  • Identify and explain methods of assisted reading instruction
  • Identify and explain methods of repeated oral reading instruction
  • Recognize how to choose text for fluency practice in terms of text length, content, and level of difficulty
  • Sequence the steps in determining the level of text difficulty
  • Identify the percent of reading accuracy for the independent, instructional, and frustration levels of difficulty
  • Describe how a teacher can provide a model of fluent prosodic reading for her students
  • Identify the grades in which students can improve fluency by practicing reading aloud with corrective feedback



Instructional PowerPoint